@About this App@Contributers@DeveloperACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein) TestingAIDS Dementia Complex (HIV)AIDS HIV InfectionAPGAR Scoring (Children)APTT and CoagulationAbacavirAbataceptAbbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS)AbciximabAbdominal Aortic AneurysmAbdominal paracentesis for ascitesAbducent NerveAbetalipoproteinaemiaAbnormal Vaginal bleedingAcamprosateAcanthocytosisAcanthosis NigricansAcarboseAccelerated Idioventricular RhythmAcetazolamideAcetylcholine Receptor AntibodiesAcetylcholinesterase inhibitorsAchalasiaAchilles Tendon ruptureAchondroplasia (Children)AciclovirAcid maltase deficiency (Pompe disease)Acne RosaceaAcne VulgarisAcoustic Neuroma (Schwannoma)Acrodermatitis enteropathica (Children)Acromegaly and GiantismAcromio-clavicular jointActinomyces israeliAction PotentialActivated CharcoalActrapid (Insulin)Acute Abdominal Pain - Acute PeritonitisAcute Acalculous CholecystitisAcute Anaphylactoid ReactionsAcute AnaphylaxisAcute Angle Closure GlaucomaAcute AppendicitisAcute Bacterial MeningitisAcute BronchitisAcute CholangitisAcute CholecystitisAcute Colonic Pseudo-obstructionAcute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) GeneralAcute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) NSTEMI USAAcute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) STEMIAcute Coronary Syndrome (Cardiac Troponins)Acute Coronary Syndrome Grace scoreAcute DeliriumAcute Disc lesionsAcute Disseminated EncephalomyelitisAcute Diverticulitis - Diverticular diseaseAcute Dystonic ReactionAcute EncephalitisAcute Eosinophilic PneumoniaAcute EpiglottitisAcute Exacerbation of COPDAcute HepatitisAcute HydrocephalusAcute HypotensionAcute InflammationAcute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP)Acute Interstitial nephritisAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)Acute Limb IschaemiaAcute Liver FailureAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)Acute MastoiditisAcute MonoarthritisAcute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)Acute MyocarditisAcute PancreatitisAcute Pelvic Inflammatory DiseaseAcute PericarditisAcute Phase reactantsAcute PorphyriasAcute Promyelocytic LeukaemiaAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Adults)Acute Retroviral Syndrome (HIV)Acute RhabdomyolysisAcute Rheumatic feverAcute Rotator cuff tearAcute Severe AsthmaAcute Severe ColitisAcute SinusitisAcute Stroke Assessment (ROSIER&NIHSS)Acute TonsilitisAcute Urinary RetentionAcute and Chronic GoutAcute and Chronic Heart FailureAcute on Chronic Liver Disease DecompensationAcutely Ill PatientAdalimumabAddenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACER)Addison Disease (Adrenal Insufficiency)AdefovirAdenosineAdenosine deaminase deficiencyAdhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)Adjustment - Anxiety disordersAdrenal AntibodiesAdrenal PhysiologyAdrenaline (Epinephrine)AdrenoleukodystrophyAdrenomyeloneuropathyAdult Onset Still's DiseaseAfrican Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness)Age related macular degenerationAicardi syndromeAir EmbolismAlbuminAlbumin-Protein Creatinine Ratio (PCR)Alcohol AbuseAlcohol Withdrawal (Delirium Tremens)Alcoholic (Steato)HepatitisAlcoholic KetoacidosisAldosterone PhysiologyAlendronate (Alendronic acid)AlfacalcidolAlkaline phosphatase (ALP)Alkalinisation of urineAlkaptonuriaAllergic Bronchopulmonary AspergillosisAllogeneic stem cell transplantationAllopurinolAlogliptin (Vipidia)AlopeciaAlpha FetoproteinAlpha ThalassaemiaAlpha subunit (ASU) of TSHAlpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiencyAlport's SyndromeAlteplaseAltitude sicknessAluminium and Magnesium AntacidsAlveolar Gas EquationAlzheimer disease (Dementia)AmantadineAmenorrhoeaAmerican Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease)AmilorideAmino acidsAminoglycosidesAminophyllineAminosalicylatesAmiodaroneAmiodarone and Thyroid diseaseAmitriptylineAmlodipineAmmonia EncephalopathyAmnestic syndromesAmoebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica)AmoxicillinAmphetamine toxicityAmphotericin BAmpicillinAnaemia of Chronic DiseaseAnagrelideAnakinraAnal CancerAndexanet alfaAndrogen insensitivity syndromeAneurysmsAngina bullosa haemorrhagicaAngiodysplasiaAngiomyolipomaAngioneurotic OedemaAngiotensin Converting Enzyme InhibitorsAngiotensin Converting enzyme (ACE)Angular Stomatitis - CheilitisAnion GapAnkle and Foot fractures and InjuriesAnkle-Brachial pressure Index (ABPI)Ankylosing spondylitisAnorexia NervosaAntacid medicationAntepartum haemorrhageAnterior Horn Cell diseasesAnterior circulationAnti Dementia DrugsAnti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (CCP) AntibodyAnti-D immunoglobulinAnti-Hu antibodiesAnti-OKT3 antibodiesAnti-RNP AntibodyAnti-Yo antibodiesAnti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)Antibiotics for Abdominal InfectionsAnticholinergic BurdenAnticholinergic syndromeAnticipationAnticoagulation and AntithromboticsAntidiuretic hormone (Vasopressin)Antigen presenting cellsAntimicrobial ChoicesAntimuscarinic drugsAntiphospholipid syndromeAntithrombin III deficiency (AT3)Aorta anatomyAortic DissectionAortic Regurgitation (Incompetence)Aortic SclerosisAortic StenosisAortoenteric fistulaApathetic thyrotoxicosisApixabanAplastic anaemiaApomorphineAppendix Cancer TumoursApproach to Assessing Sick ChildApproach to child with Acute GastroenteritisApproach to child with respiratory DistressArnold Chiari malformationArrhythmogenic Right ventricular CardiomyopathyArtemisininsArterial Blood gas analysisArterial Pulse assessmentArterial blood gas samplingArterial vs Venous vs Other Leg UlcersArteriovenous malformationsArtery of Percheron strokeArtery-to-artery embolic strokeArtesunateAsbestos Related Lung diseaseAscites Assessment and ManagementAspergillomaAspergillus fumigatusAspirinAspirin Salicylates toxicityAssessing Abdominal PainAssessing BreathlessnessAssessing Chest PainAssessing FallsAsteatotic eczemaAsthmaAstigmatismAstrocytomasAsystoleAtaxia TelangiectasiaAtazanavirAtenololAtherosclerosisAtopic Eczema or Atopic DermatitisAtorvastatinAtracuriumAtrial Ectopic beatsAtrial Fibrillation (Chemical cardioversion)Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)Atrial fibrillation (AF)Atrial flutterAtrial myxomaAtrial septal defect (ASD)Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardiaAtropine SulfateAutoantibodiesAutoimmune Haemolytic anaemia (AIHA)Autoimmune HepatitisAutonomic neuropathyAutosomal DominantAutosomal Dominant Polycystic kidney diseaseAutosomal RecessiveAzathioprineAzithromycinB lymphocytesBRCA genes (Familial Breast Cancer)Bacillus anthracisBacillus cereus poisoningBackpain / BackacheBaclofenBacteriaBacteroides fragilisBalanitis (Adults)Balanitis (Children)Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN)Balsalazide (Aminosalicylate)Barrett's oesophagusBartonellaBartters syndromeBasal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)Basic Fracture managementBasilar artery thrombosisBecker Muscular dystrophyBeclometasoneBeer PotomaniaBehavioural and Psychological Symptoms of DementiaBehcet's syndromeBell's palsyBendroflumethiazide (Bendrofluazide)Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)Benign Prostatic HyperplasiaBenign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasisBenzodiazepine ToxicityBenzodiazepinesBenzylpenicillin Sodium (Penicillin G)Berg Balance ScaleBeriplexBerylliosisBeta AgonistsBeta Blocker toxicityBeta ThalassaemiaBeta-2 MicroglobulinBeta-lactamasesBetahistine (Serc)BezafibrateBiceps ruptureBilateral adrenalectomyBiliary atresiaBilirubinBiochemical Lab valuesBisacodylBisoprololBisphosphonatesBladder CancerBladder StonesBleedingBleeding disordersBleeding due to DrugsBleomycinBlindness - global causesBlood products - Packed cells blood transfusionBlood Products - CryoprecipitateBlood Products - Fresh Frozen PlasmaBlood Products - PlateletsBlood film interpretationBlood gas valuesBloody DiarrhoeaBlotting Techniques: Gel ElectrophoresisBone Marrow TransplantationBone disease Lab resultsBone metabolism RANK RANKL OPG pathwayBone scintigraphy (Bone scan)Bordetella pertussis - Whooping coughBorrelia burgdorferiBorrelia recurrentisBotulismBrachial neuritis (neuralgic amyotrophy)Brachial plexus anatomyBrachial plexus and associated injuryBrain AbscessBrain Anatomy and functionBrain MRIBrain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)Brain PhysiologyBrain Tumours (Cancer)Brainstem anatomyBranchial cleft cystBreast CancerBreast FibroadenomaBretyliumBroad complex TachycardiaBromocriptineBronchial adenomaBronchiectasisBronchiolitisBronchoscopyBrown-Sequard syndromeBrucellaBrugada syndromeBudd-Chiari syndromeBudesonideBuerger disease (Thromboangiitis obliterans )Bulbar vs Pseudobulbar palsyBulimia NervosaBullous PemphigoidBumetanideBunionsBuprenorphineBupropionBurkholderia cepaciaBurkitt's lymphomaBurnsBusulphan (Busulfan)ByssinosisC reactive protein (CRP)CADASILCARASILCHADS2 - CHA2DS2-VASc scoreCMV retinitisCNS fungal InfectionsCNS infectionsCSF RhinorrhoeaCT Head Basics (Stroke)CT Pulmonary angiogram (CTPA)CT imaging basics for StrokeCURB 65 scoreCabergolineCaecal VolvulusCaisson Disease - Decompression sicknessCalcitoninCalcitriol (1,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol)Calcium Chloride or GluconateCalcium PhysiologyCalcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (Pseudogout)Calcium ResoniumCalcium channel blockers toxicityCalot's triangleCampylobacterCancer of Unknown PrimarCandesartanCandidiasisCannabis toxicityCapecitabineCapnocytophaga canimorsusCapnographyCapreomycinCaptopriCarbamazepineCarbapenemase-producing EnterobacteriaceaeCarbimazoleCarbon monoxide poisoningCarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)Carcinoid Heart DiseaseCarcinoid Tumour SyndromeCarcinoma of the Bile DuctCarcinoma of the GallbladderCardiac Amyloid heart diseaseCardiac Anatomy and PhysiologyCardiac Catheter ablationCardiac InfectionsCardiac MRICardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT) PacemakerCardiac Valve replacementCardioembolic strokeCardiogenic Pulmonary OedemaCardiogenic shockCardiology - History TakingCardiology Exam ListCardiology ExaminationCardiology Valves SummaryCardiopulmonary bypassCarmustineCarotid Artery anatomyCarotid Body TumourCarotid EndarterectomyCarotid Sinus SyncopeCarotid StentingCarotid artery DissectionCarotid sinus massageCarpal tunnel syndromeCarvedilolCase 01 Sudden weaknessCase 02 Loss of speechCase 03 Adult male weak legsCase 04 High calciumCase 05 High Potassium and heart failureCase 06 High calcium and weight lossCase 07 Weak eyesCase 08 Weak faceCase 09 A cause of DeliriumCase 10 Older patient presenting post strokeCase 11 Young patient with acute headacheCase 20 Young patient with acute headacheCase 21 HypoglycaemiaCase 22Case 23 Old man with tremorCase 24 Cancer and weakCase 99 (Acute breathlessness)Case TemplateCat Scratch DiseaseCataractCatheter Related Urinary Tract infection UTICatheter related Blood stream infectionCatheter related UTICauda equina syndromeCaudate NucleusCauses of Airway ObstructionCauses of Avascular Necrosis of Femoral headCauses of Sore throatCauses of WeaknessCavernous angiomas (Cavernomas)Cavernous sinusCavernous sinus thrombosisCefaclorCefalexinCefotaximeCeftazidimeCeftriaxoneCefuroximeCelecoxibCell Response to InjuryCellular Anatomy and PhysiologyCellulitisCentral Cord SyndromeCentral Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO)Central Retinal artery Occlusion (CRAO)Central Venous line InsertionCentral pontine myelinolysisCephalosporinsCerebellar Anatomy Physiology Signs DiseaseCerebellar HaemorrhageCerebellar StrokeCerebral Amyloid angiopathy (CAA)Cerebral AneurysmsCerebral AngiitisCerebral Atrophy vs HydrocephalusCerebral CortexCerebral MetastasesCerebral PalsyCerebral PerfusionCerebral Salt WastingCerebral Venous Sinus thrombosisCerebral arteritisCerebral microbleedsCervical Cancer screeningCervical Spine injuryCervical cancerCervical spondylosisCetirizineChancroidCharcot Foot Syndrome (CFS)Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) diseaseChediak Higashi syndromeChest Abdomen anatomyChest X Ray #1Chest X Ray InterpretationChest drain InsertionChlamydia - Chlamydophila pneumoniaeChlamydia psittaciChlamydia trachomatisChlorambucilChloramphenicolChlordiazepoxideChloroquineChlorphenamine(Chlorpheniramine)ChlorpromazineCholangiocarcinomaCholera (Vibrio cholera)Cholestatic JaundiceCholesteatomaCholesterol - LipidsCholinergic crisis-syndromeChondrocalcinosisChorea - BallismusChoreoacanthocytosisChromosome instability syndromesChronic BronchitisChronic HepatitisChronic InflammationChronic Inflammatory Demyelinating polyneuropathyChronic Interstitial NephritisChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)Chronic Lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML)Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)Chronic PancreatitisChronic PeritonitisChronic Radiation EnteritisChronic Urinary RetentionChronic Vision Uni-Bilateral loss (Blindness)Chronic and recurrent MeningitisChronic liver diseaseChronic mucocutaneous candidiasisChronic stable anginaChylomicronsCiclosporinCimetidineCinacalcetCiprofloxacinCirrhosisCisplatinCitalopramCladribineClarithromycinCleft lip or palateClindamycinClopidogrelClostridium botulinumClostridium difficileClostridium perfringensClostridium tetani - TetanusClotrimazole creamClotting pathwaysClozapineCo Careldopa (Sinemet)Co-Amoxiclav (Augmentin)Co-Beneldopa (Madopar)Co-codamolCo-trimoxazoleCoagulopathyCoal Worker's PneumoconiosisCoarctation of the Aorta (CoA aortopathy)Cocaine abuseCocaine induced chest painCocaine toxicityCoccidioidomycosisCodeineCoeliac diseaseCogan SyndromeColchicineCold Agglutinin Disease (CAD/AIHA)CollagenColloid cyst in the third ventricleColloidsColonic (Large bowel) ObstructionColonoscopyColorectal cancerColorectal polypsColposcopyComa managementCombined Oral contraceptive pill (COCP)Common Peroneal Nerve (CPN)Common variable immunodeficiencyComparing Rheumatoid and OsteoarthritisComplementComprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)Confirming DeathCongenital Acyanotic Heart Disease (Children)Congenital Adrenal hyperplasiaCongenital Complete Heart BlockCongenital Cyanotic Heart Disease (Children)Congenital HypothyroidismCongenital Talipes Equinovarus - ClubfootConstipationConstrictive PericarditisContact allergic dermatitisContinuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP)Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysisContraceptionConus Medullaris syndromeCor PulmonaleCoronary artery bypass graft surgeryCoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 COVID 19Corticobasal degeneration (Dementia)Corticosteroid-related psychosisCorticosteroidsCorynebacterium diphtheriaeCotard delusionCoxiella BurnetiiCranial nerves and examinationCraniopharyngiomaCreatinine ClearanceCremation forms (UK)Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (Dementia)Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic feverCritical illness neuromuscular weaknessCrohn's diseaseCroupCryptococcus neoformans infectionsCryptogenic Fibrosing AlveolitisCryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP-BOOP)CryptosporidiosisCrysal arthritisCrystalloidsCushing diseaseCushing syndromeCutaneous LeishmaniasisCyanide toxicityCyanosis - Central and PeripheralCyclizineCyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymesCyclophosphamideCycloserineCys leukotriene receptor antagonistsCystic FibrosisCystinosisCystinuriaCytokinesCytomegalovirus infectionsD DimerDNA and RNA short notesDNA replicationDabigatranDalteparinDandy Walker syndromeDantroleneDapagliflozinDarier's DiseaseDarunavirDeQuervain's thyroiditisDeath Certificates (UK)Deep brain stimulationDeep vein thrombosis (DVT)Dehydration PhysiologyDelayed Puberty CriteriaDemeclocyclineDementia with Lewy bodiesDementiasDemyelinating DiseasesDengue FeverDenosumab (Prolia)Dental AnatomyDentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophyDepressionDermatitis HerpetiformisDermatology termsDermatomesDermatomyositisDermoid cystsDesferrioxamineDesmopressin (DDAVP)Desogestrel (Progestogen Only Pill)Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the HipDevelopmental MilestonesDexamethasoneDiGeorge syndrome (thymic aplasia)Diabetes Insipidus (Cranial and Nephrogenic)Diabetes Mellitus Type 1Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and DKA (children)Diabetes Mellitus Type 2Diabetes Mellitus in pregnancyDiabetes on the wardDiabetic Autonomic Neuropathy (DAN)Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) AdultsDiabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) with SGLT2 InhibitorsDiabetic NephropathyDiabetic RetinopathyDiabetic amyotrophyDiabetic footDiamond-Blackfan anaemiaDiamorphineDiaphragmatic disordersDiarrhoeaDiazepamDidanosine (ddI)DiethylstilbestrolDifferentials causes of Foot DropDifferentials of ABCDifferentials of Generalised lymphadenopathyDifferentials of Painful thighDifferentials of XXXDiffuse Oesophageal spasmDiffuse large B-cell lymphomaDiffusion CapacityDigoxinDigoxin ToxicityDihydrocodeineDilated cardiomyopathyDiltiazemDiphtheriaDipyridamoleDischarges against adviceDiscoid lupus erythematosus (DLE)Disease templateDiseases with associated cancersDislocation Sternoclaivcular jointDisopyramideDisseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)Distributive ShockDisulfiram (Antabuse)DobutamineDog BitesDog Bites HandDominant R wave in V1DomperidoneDonepezil (Aricept)DonovanosisDopamine HydrochlorideDopamine agonistsDown's syndrome (Trisomy 21)DoxapramDoxazosin (Cardura)DoxepinDoxorubicin (Adriamycin)DoxycyclineDrivingDrowningDrug Induced Parkinson diseaseDrug Reaction Eosinophilia Systemic Symptoms DRESSDrug TemplateDrug Toxicity - clinical assessmentDrug Toxicity with Specific AntidotesDrug induced Lupus ErythematosusDrug induced liver diseaseDrugsDrugs ListDrugs to Avoid in Acute Renal failureDrugs to avoid ElderlyDrugs to avoid in Liver failureDry and Wet GangreneDual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)Duchenne muscular dystrophyDulaglutide GLP-1 agonistDuloxetineDuodenal Atresia (Children)Dupuytrens contractureDysenteryDysphagiaECG - Acute Coronary SyndromeECG - Acute ST Elevation Myocardial InfarctionECG - Atrial fibrillationECG - Atrial flutterECG - BasicsECG - Broad complex tachycardia (possible VT)ECG - Brugada syndromeECG - Causes of a Dominant R wave in V1ECG - Early Repolarisation vs STEMIECG - First degree AV BlockECG - Heart BlockECG - HyperkalaemiaECG - InterpretationECG - Ischaemic Heart DiseaseECG - Left Axis DeviationECG - Left Bundle Branch Block LBBBECG - Left Ventricular HypertrophyECG - Low Voltage ComplexesECG - Narrow complex tachycardiaECG - Normal appearanceECG - Pathological Q wavesECG - QT intervalECG - Right Axis DeviationECG - Right Bundle Branch Block RBBBECG - ST-T T waves changesECG - Supraventricular tachycardia ECG - The QRS complexECG - Tutorial from Queens UniversityECG - Ventricular fibrillationECG - Ventricular tachycardiaECG - Wolff Parkinson White syndrome (WPW)ECG - short PR intervalECG - sinus pauseECG - tall R wave V1ENT Exam - Assessing hearingENT infectionsEbola Virus DiseaseEbstein anomalyEchinocytesEchocardiogramEcstasy toxicityEctopia lentis (subluxation of the lens)Ectopic PregnancyEctropionEculizumabEdoxaban (Lixiana)Edward syndrome (trisomy 18 syndrome)Efavirenz (Sustiva) EFVEhlers-Danlos syndromesEhrlichiosisEikenella corrodensEisenmenger's syndrome (Children)Elbow fractures and InjuriesElectrical injuryEloquent brainEmergency DrugsEmphysemaEmpty sella syndromeEmtricitabine (Emtriva) FTCEnalaprilEnd of Life Care PrescribingEndocarditis and StrokeEndocrinology Lab valuesEndometrial (Uterine) CancerEndometriosisEndoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography XEndothelinsEnfuvirtideEnoxaparin Sodium (Clexane-Lovenox)EnoximoneEntacaponeEnterococciEnteropathic SpondyloarthritisEnzyme inducers and inhibitorsEosinophilic granulomatosis (Churg Strauss)EpendymomaEpidural HaematomaEpidural abscessEpilepsy - General ManagementEpilepsy - Idiopathic Generalised EpilepsyEpilepsy - Mesial temporal lobe epilepsyEpilepsy - Post TraumaticEpilepsy in PregnancyEpiscleritisEpistaxisEplerenoneEponymous brainstem strokesEpstein-Barr Virus infectionEquivalent doses of OpiatesErb PalsyErgocalciferol (Calciferol)Erlotinib (Tarceva)Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiaeErythema MultiformeErythema NodosumErythrocyte Sedimentation rate (ESR)ErythrocytesErythrodermic PsoriasisErythromycinEscherichia coliEscitalopramEsomeprazoleEssential Thrombocythaemia (ET)Essential TremorEtanerceptEthambutolEthanolEthanol toxicityEthylene glycol toxicityEtomidateEtravirine (intelence) ETREwing sarcomaExenatide (Byetta) GLP1 agonistExercise stress testExploding head syndromeExtradural haematomaExtrapyramidal symptomsExtrinsic Allergic alveolitis (Hypersensitivity)Eye infectionsEzetimibeFabry diseaseFacial NerveFacioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophyFactor V Leiden DeficiencyFaecal CalprotectinFahr syndromeFailure to thrive or Faltering growthFamilial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP)Familial AmyloidosisFamilial HypercholesterolaemiaFamilial Mediterranean Fever (FMF)Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH)Family Tree (Pedigree)FamotidineFanconi AnaemiaFanconi SyndromeFat embolismFatigue - CausesFatty acidsFebrile seizuresFelodipine (Dihydropyridine)Femoral HerniaFemoral triangleFemur fractures and InuriesFentanyl - FentanilFerritinFerrous Fumarate - Gluconate - SulphateFetal Alcohol SyndromeFetal circulationFever - Pyrexia of unknown origin (FUO PUO)Fever in a travellerFibratesFibrinogenFibromuscular dysplasiaFibromyalgiaFidaxomicinFinasteride (5 alpha-reductase inhibitor)First SeizureFitz-Hugh Curtis SyndromeFlail ChestFlecainide AcetateFlexor sheath infection (flexor tenosynovitis)FlucloxacillinFluconazoleFlucytosineFludrocortisoneFluid balances statusFlumazenil (Annexate - Romazicon)FluoxetineFocal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)Foix-Alajouanine syndromeFolate (Folic) acidFolate deficiencyFolinic acid (Leucovorin)FomepizoleFondaparinuxFood borne diseaseFoscarnet SodiumFosfomycinFosphenytoinFoster Kennedy SyndromeFournier's gangreneFracture TemplateFractured ClavicleFractured Neck of FemurFractured Pubic RamusFractured ScapulaFractured Shaft FemurFractured Tibia and FibulaFractures Shaft HumerusFractures in ChildrenFractures of Upper humerusFragile X syndromeFrailtyFraser guidelines and Gillick CompetenceFree RadicalsFriedreich's AtaxiaFrontotemporal dementiaFull or Complete Blood Count (FBC CBC)FungiFurosemide (Frusemide)Fusidic acidFusobacteria - Tropical ulcerFusobacteriumG protein-coupled receptorsGP Emergency Drugs CarriedGabapentinGalactorrhoeaGalantamineGamete intra-fallopian tube transfer (GIFT)Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)Gamma hydroxy butyrate (GHB) toxicityGanciclovir - ValganciclovirGardner syndromeGardnerella vaginalisGas GangreneGastric (MALT) LymphomaGastric CancerGastric Outlet obstruction (pyloric stenosis)GastrinomaGastro Intestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST)Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (Adult GORD)Gastro-Oesophgeal Reflux (Paediatrics GORD)GastroenteritisGastroenterology Exam ListsGastroenterology ExaminationGastroenterology HistoryGastroenterology assessment - JaundiceGastrointestinal anatomy and physiologyGastrointestinal perforationGastrostomy (PEG) tubesGaucher's diseaseGene componentsGenetic DiseasesGentamicinGiardiasisGilbert's syndromeGingival (Gum) hyperplasia-hypertrophyGitelman's syndromeGlasgow Blatchford ScoreGlasgow Coma scaleGlatiramer acetate (Copaxone)GlibenclamideGliclazideGlimepirideGlipizideGlobus PallidusGlomerulonephritisGlossitisGlucagonGlucagonomaGlucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencyGlucose Tolerance TestGlutamateGlycated HaemoglobinGlyceryl Trinitrate (GTN)Glycogen storage diseasesGlycolysis_Krebs_Electron_Transport_ChainGlycopyrronium BromideGoitreGolfer's ElbowGolimumab (Simponi)Goodpasture's syndrome (Anti GBM disease)Goserelin (Zoladex)Gradenigo's syndromeGrades of RecommendationGram StainGranuloma annulareGranulomatosis with Polyangitis GPA (Wegener)Graves DiseaseGriseofulvinGrowth Hormone DeficiencyGuillain Barre SyndromeGum hypertrophyGuthrie test New Born blood spotGynaecological History TakingGynaecomastiaHAS-BLED scoreHIV and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)HIV and Pre-exposure prophylaxisHIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN)HIV disease AssessmentHTLV-1 Associated myelopathyHaematemesisHaematology Examination - SplenomegalyHaematology Lab valuesHaematuria Mild to SevereHaemodialysisHaemoglobinsHaemolysisHaemolytic AnaemiaHaemolytic Uraemic syndromeHaemolytic disease of the newbornHaemophilia AHaemophilia BHaemophilus aegyptiusHaemophilus ducreyiHaemophilus influenzaeHaemophilus parainfluenzaeHaemopoiesisHaemorrhagic TransformationHaemorrhagic strokeHaemorrhoids (Piles)Hairy Cell LeukaemiaHairy LeukoplakiaHallervorden-Spatz disease (PKAN)HaloperidolHamman-Rich syndromeHand foot and mouth diseaseHand fractures and InjuriesHantavirus infectionsHartmann's solution (Ringer's lactate)Hartnup disease*Hashimoto's (Steroid responsive) EncephalopathyHashimoto's thyroiditisHbA1cHead (Brain) InjuryHead and Neck CancersHeadache - Analgesic overuseHeadache - Assessing Acute and SevereHeadache - Basilar MigraineHeadache - ClusterHeadache - Low CSF pressureHeadache - MigraineHeadache - TensionHeadaches - GeneralHearing aidsHeat StrokeHelicobacter pyloriHelvetica Spotted feverHemicraniectomyHenoch-Schonlein purpuraHeparin - GeneralHeparin - Low Molecular Weight HeparinHeparin - Unfractionated HeparinHeparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)Hepatic EncephalopathyHepatitis AHepatitis BHepatitis CHepatitis DHepatitis EHepatocellular CarcinomaHepatorenal syndromesHereditary ElliptocytosisHereditary HaemochromatosisHereditary Haemorrhagic TelangiectasiaHereditary Spastic ParaparesisHereditary SpherocytosisHereditary angio-oedemaHereditary neuropathy with pressure palsiesHereditary non polyposis coli (Lynch syndrome)Herpes GestationisHerpes SimplexHerpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSV)Herpes VirusesHerpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) ShinglesHerpes simplex keratitis (HSK)Heyde syndromeHiatus herniaHiccups (Singultus)High Dose Dexamethasone Suppression TestHip pain in childrenHirschsprung disease (congenital megacolon)Hirsuitism XXXHistonesHistoplasmosisHodgkin LymphomaHolt-Oram syndromeHolter monitor (tape) 24-72 hHomocystinuriaHookwormHorner's syndromeHospital acquired Pneumonia (NICE 139)Human albumin solution (HAS)Human prion diseasesHumeral fractures and injuriesHunter's syndrome (MPS-2)Huntington ChoreaHurler's syndrome (MPS-1)Hydatid disease (Echinococcus)Hydatidiform moleHydralazineHydrocortisoneHydrogen BondsHydrops fetalisHydroxocobalaminHydroxocobalamin - Cyanocobalamin (B12)HydroxychloroquineHydroxyurea-HydroxycarbamideHyoscine (Buscopan)Hyper IgM syndromeHyperbaric Oxygen therapyHypercalcaemiaHyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS)Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycemic therapy (HIET)HyperkalaemiaHyperkalaemic and Hypokalaemic Periodic ParalysisHypermagnesaemiaHypernatraemiaHyperphosphataemia (High phosphate)HyperprolactinaemiaHypersensitivity reactionsHypertensionHypertension in PregnancyHypertriglyceridaemia (HTG)Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM - HOCM)Hyperventilation SyndromeHyperviscosity syndromeHypocalcaemiaHypoglycaemiaHypogonadism (Female)Hypogonadism (male)HypokalaemiaHypokalaemic Periodic ParalysisHypomagnesaemiaHyponatraemiaHypoparathyroidismHypophosphataemia (Low phosphate)Hypopituitarism (Pituitary Failure)HypospadiasHypothermiaHypothyroidismHypovolaemic or Haemorrhagic ShockIL-12 receptor deficiencyIV ImmunoglobulinIbandronic acid (Bisphosphonate)IbuprofenIcatibantIdiopathic Intracranial hypertensionIdiopathic Parkinson diseaseIdiopathic Pulmonary FibrosisIgA Nephropathy (Berger's disease)Images - Spot diagosesImatinib mesylateImipenem (Primaxin) with CilastinImmune Reconstitution SyndromeImmune(Idiopathic) Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD)ImpetigoImplantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)Impulse control disordersInclusion Body MyositisIncubation periodsIndapamideIndinavir (IND)Infection screening in Septic patientInfections and their Microbial causeInfectious MononucleosisInfective ConjunctivitisInfective EndocarditisInfertilityInfliximabInfluenzaInguinal HerniaInitial Trauma AssessmentInjury Severity Score (ISS)Insomnia - sleep issuesInsulinInsulinomaInterferon BetaIntermittent ClaudicationInternal CapsuleInternuclear OphthalmoplegiaInterpreting HaematinicsInterstitial KeratitisIntestinal obstruction (Children)Intra Aortic Balloon PumpIntraabdominal abscessIntracerebral Haemorrhage (ICH) ScoreIntracranial HypertensionXIntravenous Iron Replacement (Ferrous)Intraventricular haemorrhage (neonates)Intubation and Mechanical VentilationIntussusception (Adults)Intussusception (Children)Iodine deficiency GoitreIpratropium Bromide (Atrovent)IrbesartanIron SaltsIron deficiency AnaemiaIron toxicityIrritable bowel syndromeIschaemic ColitisIschaemic StrokeIschaemic heart diseaseIsoniazidIsoprenalineIsosorbide DinitrateIsosorbide mononitrateIsotretinoin (Accutane)Ispaghula Husk (Fybogel)IvabradineJansen DiseaseJanus kinase 2Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndromeJob Syndrome (Hyper IgE syndrome)Jugular Venous Pressure (JVP)Junctional TachycardiaJuvenile DermatomyositisJuvenile Idiopathic arthritis (Stills Disease)Juvenile Myoclonic epilepsy (JME)Kallmann's syndromeKaposi sarcoma (KS)Karnofsky performance status scaleKawasaki diseaseKennedy SyndromeKeratoconusKernicterusKetamineKetoconazoleKlebsiella pneumoniaKlinefelter Syndrome (Children)Klumpke palsyKnee fractures and InjuriesKoebner phenomenonKugelberg Welander syndromeKwashiorkorL-Thyroxine (T4)Labetalol (Trandate)Labyrinthitis - Vestibular NeuronitisLactateLactate dehydrogenase (LDH)Lactic acidosisLactobacillus acidophilusLactose IntoleranceLactuloseLady Windermere syndromeLambert-Eaton syndrome (LEMS)Lamivudine (3TC)LamotrigineLangerhans Cell Histiocytosis XLansoprazoleLanthanumLateral Medullary SyndromeLaxativesLe Fort FracturesLead toxicityLeber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)LeflunomideLegal definition of BlindnessLegionella pneumophilaLeishmaniasis (Cutaenous and Visceral)Lemierre's syndromeLenalidomide (Revlimid)Length Dependent PolyneuropathyLennox-Gastaut syndromeLenticulostriate branch occlusionLeprosyLeptinLeptospira interrogansLeptospirosis (Weil's Disease) (Notifiable)Leriche syndrome (aortoiliac occlusive disease)Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (Children)LeukaemiaLeukaemias in GeneralLeukoariosisLeukocytoclastic vasculitisLeukotrienesLevetiracetam (Keppra)LevodopaLevomepromazineLevosimendanLi Fraumeni syndromeLichen PlanusLiddle's syndromeLidocaine(Lignocaine)Lightning strikeLimb girdle dystrophyLimbic EncephalitisLinagliptin (Trajenta)LinezolidLinkageLiothyronine Sodium L-Triodothyronine (T3)Lipid emulsion therapy - 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small intestineMalaria (non falciparum)Malaria FalciparumMale InfertilityMale Urethral CatheterisationMale erectile dysfunctionMalignant AscitesMalignant Hyperpyrexia (Malignant Hyperthermia)Malignant HypertensionMalignant MelanomaMalignant pleural mesotheliomaMallet FingerMallory-Weiss TearMalnutrition Universal Screening ToolManiaMannitolMantle cell lymphomaMarantic EndocarditisMarasmusMaraviroc (Celsentri)Marfan syndromeMarginal Zone LymphomaMassive HaemoptysisMaturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)McArdles disease (type V)Measles (notifiable)MebeverineMeckel's diverticulumMeconiumMedian NerveMedical Mnemonics Basic SciencesMedical Mnemonics CardiologyMedical Mnemonics EndocrineMedical Mnemonics Mental HealthMedical Mnemonics MiscellaneousMedical Mnemonics NeurologyMedical ProceduresMedical TeethMedullary Sponge kidneyMedulloblastomaMefenamic acidMefloquine (Larium)Megaloblastic anaemiaMelatoninMelioidosisMemantine HydrochlorideMembranous GlomerulonephritisMenetrier diseaseMeniere diseaseMeningiomaMeningitis in the ImmunocompromisedMenopauseMenstrual cycleMental Capacity Act 2005Mental Health Act 1983Mental State ExaminationMercaptopurineMeropenemMesalazine (Aminosalicylate)Mesangiocapillary GlomerulonephritisMesenteric infarctionMetabolic Syndrome XMetabolic acidosisMetabolic alkalosisMetachromic leucodystrophyMetastatic AdenocarcinomaMetastatic bone diseaseMetforminMethaemoglobinaemiaMethanol ToxicityMethodoneMethods to reduce toxin absorptionMethotrexateMethylcelluloseMethylprednisoloneMetoclopramideMetolazoneMetoprololMetronidazole (Flagyl)Metyrapone (Metopirone)MiconazoleMicroangiopathic Haemolytic anaemiaMicrocytic anaemiaMicroscopic PolyangiitisMicroscopic colitisMicrostomiaMidazolamMiddle East Resp Syndrome (MERS) CoronavirusMidodrineMigraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS)Miller-Fisher syndromeMilwaukee shoulder syndromeMini Mental State Examination (MMSE)Minimal Change Disease GlomerulonephritisMinocyclineMinoxidilMirabegronMirizzi syndromeMirtazapineMiscarriageMisoprostolMitochondrial diseasesMitral Regurgitation (Incompetence)Mitral StenosisMitral Stenosis vs Regurgitation - DominanceMitral Valve prolapseMittleschmerzMixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD)Mobility aidsModified Duke Criteria for EndocarditisModified Oxford Handicap Scale (MOHS)Modified Rankin ScoreMolluscum contagiosumMonoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significanceMonocular loss of visionMonocytesMonosodium glutamate (MSG) syndromeMontelukastMontreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA)Moraxella catarrhalisMorphine SulphateMosquito borne diseasesMotor Neuron Disease (MND-ALS)Moyamoya diseaseMucormycosisMultifocal Atrial TachycardiaMultifocal Motor Neuropathy with Conduction blockMultiple Antithrombotics AnticoagulantsMultiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type II (MEN2)Multiple MyelomaMultiple PregnancyMultiple Sclerosis (MS) DemyelinationMultiple System Atrophy (MSA)Mumps (Notifiable)Muscles of the Abdominal RegionMuscles of the BackMuscles of the Head and NeckMuscles of the Lower LimbMuscles of the Pelvis and PerineumMuscles of the Thoracic RegionMuscles of the Upper limbMyasthenia GravisMycobacterium TuberculosisMycophenolate mofetilMycoplasma pneumoniaeMycoplasmasMycosis Fungoides (Sezary Syndrome)Myelodysplastic syndrome (Myelodysplasia)MyelofibrosisMyelofibrosis vs CMLMyelopathyMyeloproliferative disordersMyobacterium avium Complex InfectionMyocardial perfusionMyoclonusMyotonic dystrophy - Dystropica myotonicaMyxoedema comaN-Acetylcysteine (Parvolex)NEWS Reacting to Low Oxygen SaturationsNICE Guidelines LinksNICE Trauma Guidance Summary 2016NSAID toxicityNaloxone (Narcan) Opiate antagonistNaproxenNarcolepsyNasal polypsNasogastric tube insertionNatalizumab (Tysabri)National Early Warning Score NEWS 2 ScoreNeck PainNeck swellings and lumpsNecrotising Enterocolitis (Infants)Necrotising fasciitisNeedlestick injuryNefopamNeisseria gonorrhoeaeNeisseria meningitidisNelson SyndromeNeomycinNeonatal Abstinence Syndrome NASNeonatal JaundiceNeonatal Lupus ErythematosusNeonatal meningitisNeostigmineNephritic syndromeNephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour)Nephrotic syndromeNephrotoxic drugsNerve conduction studiesNerve fibresNeuroanatomy 101Neuroanatomy imagesNeuroblastomaNeurocysticercosisNeuroferrinopathyNeurofibromatosis Type 1Neurofibromatosis Type 2Neuroleptic Malignant SyndromeNeurological - Relative Afferent pupillary defectNeurological - Vision and Eye movementsNeurological Examination - 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IdarucizumabPraziquantelPrazosinPre-Operative AssessmentPreEclampsia, Eclapsmia and HELLPPrednisolonePrednisonePregabalinPremature LabourPremature MenopausePresbyacusisPrescribing InformationPrescribing in PregnancyPressure soresPrevotella (Bacteroides) melaninogenicaPriapismPrimaquinePrimary (Chronic simple) Open angle GlaucomaPrimary Biliary CirrhosisPrimary CNS LymphomaPrimary HyperparathyroidismPrimary Sclerosing CholangitisPrimary ciliary dyskinesiaPrimary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome)Primary progressive aphasia (Dementia)ProbenicidProchlorperazine (Stemetil)ProcyclidineProgressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)ProlactinomaPropafenonePropanthelinePropionibacteriumPropofolPropranololPropylthiouracilProstate cancerProsthetic ValvesProtamine SulfateProtein C DeficiencyProtein S DeficiencyProtein losing enteropathyProtein p53Protein synthesisProteusProthrombin 20210A mutationProthrombin Complex Concentrates (PCC)Prothrombin time and CoagulationProthrombotic disordersProton Pump InhibitorsProximal myopathyPrucalopridePsammoma bodiesPseudohypoparathyroidismPseudomonas infection (Pseudomonas aeruginosa)Psoas AbscessPsoriasisPsoriatic arthritisPsychogenic PolydipsiaPubic Lice (Pediculosis Pubis)Pulmonary Alveolar ProteinosisPulmonary Arteriovenous malformationPulmonary EmbolismPulmonary Eosinophilia and CXR changesPulmonary HypertensionPulmonary Hypertension - 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Age over 65SimvastatinSinus BradycardiaSinus Node diseaseSinus TachycardiaSitagliptinSitosterolemiaSjogren's syndromeSkin and soft tissue infectionsSkull AnatomySleep physiologySlipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis (SUFE)Small Bowel IschaemiaSmall Bowel ObstructionSmall vessel diseaseSmallpoxSmokingSnake BitesSneddon SyndromeSodium BicarbonateSodium NitroprussideSodium PhysiologySodium PicosulfateSodium Thiopental - Sodium ThiopentoneSodium Valproate (Epilim Depakote)Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate (Lokelma)Soft tissue injuries (sprains, strains)SolifenacinSolitary Pulmonary NoduleSotalol HydrochlorideSpetzler-Martin Grading of AVMSpina BifidaSpinal Cord AnatomySpinal Cord Arteriovenous MalformationsSpinal Cord CompressionSpinal Cord HaematomaSpinal Cord InfarctionSpinal StenosisSpirometrySpironolactoneSpleenSplenic RuptureSpondylolisthesisSpontaneous Bacterial PeritonitisSpontaneous intracranial hypotensionSquamous Cell CarcinomaSt John's WortStaphylococcal InfectionsStaphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus epidermidisStaphylococcus saprophyticusStatinStatus Epilepticus (Epilepsy)Stavudine (Zerit) d4TStevens-Johnson SyndromeStiff Person SyndromeStrabismus (Lazy Eye)Streptobacillus moniliformisStreptococci - anaerobesStreptococcusStreptococcus agalactiaeStreptococcus milleriStreptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)Streptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus viridansStreptokinaseStreptomycinStridorStroke - Arterial Occlusion and clinical correlateStroke - Epidemiology and risk factorsStroke - General ManagementStroke - ImagingStroke ASPECTS scoringStroke CollateralsStroke Risk FactorsStroke ThrombolysisStrongyloides stercoralis (threadworm)StrontiumSubacute Sclerosing PanencephalitisSubacute ThyroiditisSubarachnoid HaemorrhageSubclavian Steal SyndromeSubclavian vein thrombosisSubdural haematomaSucralfateSudden Cardiac Death (SCD)Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)SuicideSulfasalazine - SulphasalazineSulphonamide (Sulphamethoxazole)SumatriptanSuperior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) SyndromeSuperior Sagittal Sinus ThrombosisSuperior vena caval obstruction syndromeSupracondylar Femur FracturesSupracondylar Humerus FracturesSupraspinatus tendonitisSupraventricular TachycardiaSurgical CricothyroidotomySurgical prophylaxisSurgical site infectionSusac syndromeSuxamethoniumSydenham's choreaSynchronised DC CardioversionSyncopeSyndrome X (Cardiology)Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH) secretionSyndromes with Severe Cognitive IssuesSyphilisSyringobulbiaSyringomyeliaSystemic AmyloidosisSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)Systemic MastocytosisSystemic SclerosisT cellsTIMI scoreTMN Staging tumoursTNF receptor-associated periodic syndromeTORCH infectionsTURP Hyponatraemia syndromeTabes dorsalisTacrolimusTafamidisTakayasu arteritis (pulseless disease)Takotsubo CardiomyopathyTamoxifenTamsulosin (Flomax)Tanner Stages of Pubertal DevelopmentTardive DyskinesiasTay-Sachs diseaseTazocin (Tazobactam - Piperacillin)TeicoplaninTelomeresTemazepamTemozolomide (Temodal)Template XTemplate two columns listTemporal (Giant Cell GCA) ArteritisTenecteplaseTennis ElbowTensilon testTension PneumothoraxTerbutalineTeriparatideTerlipressinTertiary hyperparathyroidismTesticular CancerTesticular torsionTestingTetrabenazineTetracosactide (Synacthen)TetracyclinesTetralogy of Fallot (Children)Thalamic HaemorrhageThalamic Pain SyndromeThalamic Stroke SyndromeThalidomideTheophyllineTheophylline toxicityThiamineThird Degree (complete) Heart BlockThoracic TraumaThoracic anatomyThoracic outlet syndromeThrombocytosisThrombolysisThrombophilia testingThrombotic Thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)Thyroglossal Cyst (Children)Thyroid CancerThyroid Function Tests and antbodiesThyroid GlandThyroid Storm - Thyrotoxic crisisThyroid Surgery (Thyroidectomy)Thyroid noduleThyrotoxicosis and HyperthyroidismTiagabineTibia and Fibula fractures and InjuriesTicagrelorTick ParalysisTimololTinea capitisTinidazoleTinzaparin (Innohep)Tiotropium (Spiriva)Titre - 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Paratyphoid fever (Enteric Fever)Tyrosine Kinase receptorsUS vs UK Drug namesUbiquitinUlcerative ColitisUlnar nerveUltrasound - Echo basicsUndifferentiated Inflammatory Arthritis (Children)Unexplained symptomsUpper Gastrointestinal Bleed (GI Bleed)Upper-Lower Motor Neurone signsUrea and ElectrolytesUrethral syndomeUrinary CatheterisationUrinary Incontinence (Stress and Urge)Urinary Tract Infection (UTI Children)Urinary Tract InfectionsUrinary Tract ObstructionUrinary UTI Antibiotic guidanceUrine AnalysisUrothelial tumoursUrticariaUterusVIPomasVTE DVT PE in PregnancyVaginal CarcinomaValaciclovirValsartanVancomycinVariable rate intravenous insulin infusion VRIIIVariant (Prinzmetal) AnginaVaricella-Zoster (Chickenpox Shingles) InfectionVariegate PorphyriaVascular DementiaVasculitis - General Issues and ClassificationVasopressin (AVP) Antidiuretic hormoneVasovagal syncopeVaughan-Williams ClassificationVecuroniumVedolizumab (Entyvio)VenlafaxineVenous Insufficiency and Leg UlcersVenous access Venflons and Central linesVentilator associated pneumonia (VAP)Ventricular FibrillationVentricular Septal defect (VSD) (Children)Ventricular TachycardiaVentricular ectopic beatsVerapamilVertebral artery dissectionVertigoVesicoureteric reflux (VUR) (Children)Vibrio parahaemolyticusVibrio vulnificusVibrio vulnificus Vigabatrin (Sabril)VinblastineVincristineViral MeningitisViral associated cancersVirusesVisual acuityVitamin A deficiency (Children)Vitamin B1 Thiamine deficiencyVitamin B12 deficiencyVitamin B12 excessVitamin C deficiency (Scurvy)Vitamin D (1,25 OH2)Vitamin D (25 OH D)Vitamin D deficiencyVitamin D resistant rickets (Children)Vitamin K (Phytomenadione)Vitamin K deficiencyVitiligoVoltarol (Diclofenac)Von Gierke Disease (Children)Von Hippel LindauVon Willebrand DiseaseWaardenburg's syndrome (Children)Wagner Classification Diabetic foot ulcersWaldenstrom Macroglobulinaemia (WM)Wallerian DegenerationWarfarinWarfarin and BleedingWater PhysiologyWatershed InfarctsWerdnig Hoffman Disease (Children)Wernicke Korsakoff SyndromeWhite Blood Cells - LeukocytesWilliams Syndrome (Children)Wilson diseaseWiskott-Aldrich syndrome (Children)Wolff-Parkinson White syndrome (WPW)Wolfram syndrome (DIDMOAD)Wound healingX linked Agammaglobulinaemia (Bruton)X linked Hypophosphataemic ricketsX-linked IchthyosisX-linked lymphoproliferative disease (Children)Xeroderma pigmentosumYellow FeverYellow Nail SyndromeYersinia enterocoliticaYersinia pestis - Bubonic PlagueYersinia pseudotuberculosisZZAAAZZ_Abnormal charZabramski Classification of CavernomasZidovudine (Retrovir) AZT - ZDVZieve's syndromeZika virusZinc deficiencyZoledronic acidZollinger Ellison syndromeZolpidemZopicloneeGFR

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Atrial Fibrillation (AF)


About
  • With AF there is uncoordinated chaotic atrial activation
  • This leads to atrial mechanical dysfunction
  • Major risk of cardioembolism causing ischaemic stroke
  • Most patients need anticoagulation
Aetiology
  • Atrial fibrosis, loss of atrial muscle mass.
  • Increased automaticity or multiple re-entrant wavelets.
  • Atrial rate AF is 400-600/min but it is the ventricular response that matters.
  • Ventricular rate limited at AV node to a max of approximately 200/min
  • An accessory bundle (WPW) can allow faster rates to conduct causing VF.
ECG
Physiology
  • Haemodynamics: ?HR shortens diastole and limits LV filling and coronary perfusion.
  • LV filling already compromised by loss of atrial systole.
  • Rate control with drugs, treat failure and DC shock if needed.
  • Impaired LV function or mitral stenosis makes things much worse.
Clinical
  • Asymptomatic. Palpitations, dyspnoea, chest discomfort.
  • Cardioembolic stroke, mesenteric emboli, limb emboli, dyspnoea.
  • Fatigue and worsening heart failure, syncope, dizziness.
  • Low BP with fast/slow AF, irregularly irregular pulse. Pulse deficit.
  • Murmurs suggesting valve disease, signs of thyroid disease, hypertension.
Clinical Effect of AF
  • Death: Usually doubled in incidence < 48 hrs and is reduced by antithrombotic therapy
  • Stroke: Increase in Ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke and more severe
  • Admissions: Increased risk of hospital admission
  • Quality of life: Wide variation from no impact to severe
  • LV function: Wide variation from a tachycardiomyopathy to no effect on LV
Causes of atrial fibrillation
  • Ischaemic, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy,
  • Post cardiac surgery, thyrotoxicosis, alcohol acute binge or chronic, sick sinus syndrome
  • Congenital heart disease, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, sarcoidosis
  • Amyloidosis, haemochromatosis, lone AF (idiopathic), pericarditis, myocarditis.
Atrial fibrillation can come in several different forms as shown in the table below.

Type AFDefinition
Paroxysmal AFUsually lasts < 48 hrs though others define 7 days and may terminate spontaneously. Can recur with variable frequency
Persistent AFContinuous and Lasts > 7 days or requires Cardioversion
Long standing Persistent AFLasts > 12 months
Permanent AFAccepted and all attempts at cardioversion or rhythm control have ceased
Silent AFHigh degree of suspicion by pattern of stroke and risk factors but to date undocumented PAF
Non valvular AFAF but no rheumatic mitral stenosis, no mechanical or bioprosthetic heart valve or mitral valve repair
Valvular Atrial Fibrillation
  • Valvular heart disease tends to infer the presence of rheumatic mitral stenosis which is the most common lesion associated with thromboembolism, irrespective of the coexistence of mitral regurgitation.
  • Atrial fibrillation develops as MS progresses and increases the risk of thromboembolism up to 18 times. Thrombi associated with mitral stenosis can be found on the atrial wall or in the left atrial appendage.
  • Risks of embolic stroke in these patients is related to age and low cardiac output, but not left atrial size, mitral calcification, or severity of mitral stenosis. The association of mitral regurgitation with thromboembolism correlates with the coexistence of mitral stenosis.
  • Oral anticoagulation reduces the risk of stroke in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis, particularly those with coexistent atrial fibrillation. The risk-benefit ratio in those without atrial fibrillation is not known. Of those patients who have had one event, early recurrent embolism has been reported in up to two thirds and aggressive anticoagulation instituted with Warfarin.
  • The newer agents such as Dabigatran have not been licensed for use in this group of patients and either Warfarin or LMWH is needed long term.
Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation
  • This is defined above as those with AF but no rheumatic mitral stenosis, no mechanical or bioprosthetic heart valve or mitral valve repair and this definition is used in the AHA/ACC guidelines listed below.
  • For these patients the CHA2DS2-Vasc score is recommended for assessment of stroke risk.
  • There are some patients with AF who are at very low risk of cardioembolism. Where the stroke risk is less than 1% Warfarin is not advocated and aspirin is possibly a reasonable choice. In an attempt to improve risk assessment, the CHADS2 score has been very helpful and has been improved upon with the CHADS2-Vasc score [Lip GY et al. 2010, Olesen JB 2011].
  • The score is useful for assessing risk, giving a more personalised risk assessment to patients and communicating risk and beneficial strategies. However, the risk of anticoagulation related bleeds must balance the reduction in embolic episodes. The HAS-BLED score has been shown to be useful.
Investigations
  • Bloods: FBC low Hb, high WCC with sepsis, U&E, Mg, Ca, K, TFT - thyrotoxicosis, LFTs, alcohol, haemochromatosis.
  • CXR: cardiomegaly, pulmonary oedema, infection, post cardiac surgery effusion.
  • Troponin: Elevated with ACS or myocarditis and minor rise with DC shock.
  • ECG: absent p waves no organised atrial activity, fibrillatory waves that vary in amplitude, shape, and timing, QRS complexes which are irregularly irregular. Aberrantly conducted AF wide complex and fast but irregular. Pre-excited AF: QRS 160-300/min and slurred up or downstroke of delta waves seen giving wide complex appearance but very irregular; the irregularity means that it is not VT. Dangerous if it conducts to ventricles at 1:1 and can precipitate VT/VF. This depends on the character of the accessory pathway. If there are RR intervals <260 ms this is considered unsafe and needs inpatient cardiology review for ablation. If unstable simply DC cardiovert.
  • Capturing PAF: 24 h tape in those with suspected asymptomatic episodes or symptomatic episodes less than 24 h apart. Use an event recorder ECG in those with symptomatic episodes more than 24 h apart. Some may use 7-day tape.
  • Transthoracic echocardiogram: assess LV function, valve disease, LA size. Anticoagulation rarely depends on the echo.
  • Transoesophageal echocardiogram: closer inspection of valves, mitral disease, ASD, endocarditis, LA appendage thrombus may be seen and can help assess the risk of thromboembolism.
  • Coronary angiography: if IHD suspected.
Management
  • Fast AF and compromised. AF and fast AF can be a response to an infective, inflammatory or metabolic/toxic cause. Treatment must balance to focus on treating the underlying cause as well as using rate control drugs. Look for causality.
  • If fast AF is causing compromise: Low BP, LVF, angina then consider rate control with Amiodarone or Digoxin but if that fails then consider DC cardioversion which may be done without anticoagulation but start treatment dose LMWH [NICE 2014].
  • Consider Rhythm control and cardioversion if the arrhythmia is less than 48 h. If AF duration > 48 h and not anticoagulated then needs TOE/TEE to exclude atrial thrombus.
  • DC Cardioversion should be anticoagulated 3-4 weeks before DC cardioversion. If unwell and needs DCC take expert advice. Anticoagulate post-procedure for at least 4 weeks. Long term if AF continues.
  • Pharmacological Cardioversion should be anticoagulated 3-4 weeks before chemical cardioversion. If not needs TOE/TEE to exclude atrial thrombus. Give Flecainide 1-2 mg/kg over 10 minutes or Amiodarone 300 mg IV bolus then 900 mg over 24 hrs. Anticoagulate post-procedure for at least 4 weeks. Long term if AF continues.
  • ABC, high flow oxygen as needed. IV fluids cautiously if at all in LVF or fluid overloaded. Start treatment dose LMWH in all with AF and not anticoagulated with no contraindications. Look for and treat any cause: chest infection, thyrotoxicosis, ACS, PE, sepsis, MI/ACS, pulmonary oedema, PE, alcohol excess or withdrawal.
  • AF and well: ventricular rate 60-120/min and haemodynamically well. Determine and manage the cause. Anticoagulate (as above). Decide rhythm vs rate control strategy as defined below.
Rate control
  • Consider oral beta-blocker or rate limiting CCB. Digoxin may be considered if sedentary lifestyle. Avoid Amiodarone long term as side effects significant.
Specific scenarios
  • Pre-excited AF and WPW syndrome: use IV Procainamide or IV Amiodarone or Sotalol or Flecainide and if unstable then immediate DC cardioversion. Avoid digoxin, beta-blockers and Verapamil or Diltiazem in pre-excited AF. They may increase the risk of VF. Assess for anticoagulation.
  • Prevention and management of postoperative AF: cardiothoracic surgery reduce postoperative AF by offering either amiodarone, a standard beta-blocker (not sotalol), a rate-limiting calcium antagonist. DO NOT offer digoxin. Continue any pre-existing beta-blockade. Postop offer a rhythm-based strategy. For postop AF, use appropriate antithrombotic therapy and correct identifiable precipitants (U&E, low SpO2) [NICE 2014].
  • Atrial flutter: needs rate control and risk assessed and anticoagulation. Consider Beta blockade or diltiazem or digoxin for rate control. Cardioversion should be considered with the same assessment and anticoagulation as for AF.
  • Anticoagulation: For AF, atrial flutter or PAF. Determine CHA2DS2VaSc score and HAS-BLED score and assess risk/benefits of anticoagulation. Control hypertension, review the need for Aspirin or NSAIDs, stop/reduce alcohol. Do not avoid anticoagulation purely on the risk of falls. Quantify risk and intervene to reduce falls where possible. Anticoagulate CHA2DS2VaSc > 1 in men and >2 in women. If non-valvular AF (those with severe MS or AS or with a metal valve must have warfarin or LMWH) then consider Warfarin or a DOAC (Apixaban, Dabigatran or Rivaroxaban, etc.). A high CHA2DS2VaSc score needs urgent commencement on LMWH or a DOAC or Warfarin. If anticoagulation is contraindicated or not acceptable then consider cardiology referral for Left atrial appendage occlusion.
  • Bridging anticoagulation: interruptions in anticoagulation can increase embolic risk. It is common to give LMWH bridging in the perioperative period but this may lead to the risk of bleeding. A recent study has looked at this. The study excluded those with mechanical heart valves, stroke/ TIA/systemic embolization within 12 weeks, major bleeding within 6 weeks, renal insufficiency, low platelets or planned cardiac, brain or spinal surgery. The conclusion was that bridging is not warranted for most AF patients with CHA2DS2VaSc scores of <4, for low-risk procedures. This study must be interpreted along with local expert guidance balancing the risk of peri-procedure bleeding and embolic risk [N Engl J Med 2015;373(9):823].
Surgery/Ablation
  • A surgical procedure (maze operation) controls AF in more than 90% of selected patients.
  • Catheter ablation eliminates or reduces the frequency of recurrent AF in more than 60% of patients, but the risk of recurrent AF is 30% to 50%
Left atrial appendage occlusion
  • Anticoagulation is the standard treatment of choice to reduce the risk and size of cardioembolic stroke. When anticoagulants are contraindicated due to excessive bleeding risk then Percutaneous Left atrial appendage occlusion may be considered.
  • Patients selected should be those patients with AF with high stroke risk and contraindications for Oral Anticoagulation. An excellent review can be found here. It is an evolving field and perhaps best if those undergoing the procedure do so as part of an RCT.
References and further reading